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Reported Speech

'Yabancı Dil' forumunda Powers tarafından 20 Temmuz 2013 tarihinde açılan konu

  1. Powers

    Powers Administrator Site Yetkilisi

    Paul: I’m feeling ill. (Hasta olduğumu hissediyorum.)

    Paul’un söylediğini birisine anlatırken iki yol vardır.

    1- Paul’un kelimeleri ile anlatırız (direct speech)
    Paul said, “I’m feeling ill.”

    2- Dolaylı anlatımdan faydalanırız (reported speech)
    Paul said that he was feeling ill. (Paul hasta olduğunu söyledi.)

    Reported speech kullanırken cümlenin ana fiili genellikle past haldedir. (Paul said that, I told her that,… gibi) Aktarılan cümlede genellikle past haldedir.
    I told Lisa that I didn’t have any money. (Lisa’ya hiç paramın olmadığını anlattım.)

    “That” kelimesini istersek söylemeyebiliriz.
    Paul said that he was feeling ill.
    Paul said he was feeling ill.

    Genelikle present formdaki fiiller past forma dönüşürler.
    Am/is: was
    Are: were
    Do/does: did
    Have/has: had
    Will: would
    Can: could

    Örnekler:
    -My parants are very well.
    Jenny said that her parents was very well.

    -I’m going to learn to drive.
    She said that she was going to learn to drive.

    -John has a new job.
    She said that John had a new job.

    -I want to buy a car.
    She said that she wanted to buy a car.

    -I can’t come to the party on Friday.
    She said that she couldn’t come to the party on Friday.

    -I don’t have much free time.
    She said that she didn’t have much free time.

    -I’m going away for a few days. I’ll phone you when I get back.
    She said that she was going away for a few days and would phone me when she got back.

    Past simple zamandaki fiiller dolaylı anlatımda genellikle aynı kalırlar veya past perfect hale dönüşebilirler.
    Direct: Paul said: I woke up feeling ill, so I didn’t g oto work.
    Indirect: Paul said that he woke up feeling ill, so he didn’t g oto work.
    Indirect: Paul said that he had woken up feeling ill, so he hadn’t göne to work.

    Eğer konuşulan durum halen geçerliliğini sürdürüyorsa fiilin dolaylı anlatımda değişmesi zorunlu değildir.
    Direct: Paul said, “My new job is very intersting.”
    Indirect: Paul said that his new job is very interesting. (Paul yeni işinin ilginç olduğunu söyledi)

    Direct: Helen said, “I want to go to New York next year.”
    Indiect: Helen told me that she wants to go to New York next year.

    İsterseniz fiili geçmiş zamana çevirebilirsinizde.
    Paul said that his new job was very interesting.
    Helen told me that she wanted to go to New York next year.

    Ancak eğer bitmiş durumları anlatıyorsanız fiilleri geçmiş zamana çevirmek zorundasınız.
    Paul left the room suddenly. He said he had to go.

    Söylenen ile gerçekte doğru olan arasında fark olduğu zaman fiilin past halini kullanmamız gerekir.
    Sonia ile birkaç gün önce karşılaştığında sana dedi ki:
    Joe is in hospital.
    O günden sonra Joe ile yolda karşılaşıp ona diyorsun ki:
    I didn’t expect to see you, Joe. Sonia said you were in hospital. (you are in hospital değil çünkü kesin olarak Joe’nun hastanede olmadığı biliniyor)

    Say ve tell
    Eğer seninle konuşan kişiden bahsediyorsan told, aksi durumda say kullanılır.
    Sonia told me that you were in hospital. (told somebody)
    What did you tell the police?
    Sonia said that you were in hospital. (said not somebody)
    What did you say?

    Ancak “say something to somebody “ olarak kllanılır.
    Ann said goodbye to me and left.
    What did you say to the police?

    Tell/ask somebody to do something kullanımı
    Dolaylı anlatımda özellikle tell ve ask ile birlikte infinitive de kullanılır.
    Direct: Stay in bed for a few days the doctor said to me.
    Reported: The doctor told me tos tay in bed for a few days.
    Direct: Don’t shout, I said to Jim.
    Reported: I told Jim not to shout.
     
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